Source code for pypfopt.base_optimizer

The ``base_optimizer`` module houses the parent classes ``BaseOptimizer`` from which all
optimizers will inherit. ``BaseConvexOptimizer`` is the base class for all ``cvxpy`` (and ``scipy``)

Additionally, we define a general utility function ``portfolio_performance`` to
evaluate return and risk for a given set of portfolio weights.
import collections
import copy
import json
import warnings
from import Iterable
from typing import List

import numpy as np
import pandas as pd
import cvxpy as cp
import scipy.optimize as sco

from . import objective_functions
from . import exceptions

[docs]class BaseOptimizer: """ Instance variables: - ``n_assets`` - int - ``tickers`` - str list - ``weights`` - np.ndarray Public methods: - ``set_weights()`` creates self.weights (np.ndarray) from a weights dict - ``clean_weights()`` rounds the weights and clips near-zeros. - ``save_weights_to_file()`` saves the weights to csv, json, or txt. """
[docs] def __init__(self, n_assets, tickers=None): """ :param n_assets: number of assets :type n_assets: int :param tickers: name of assets :type tickers: list """ self.n_assets = n_assets if tickers is None: self.tickers = list(range(n_assets)) else: self.tickers = tickers self._risk_free_rate = None # Outputs self.weights = None
def _make_output_weights(self, weights=None): """ Utility function to make output weight dict from weight attribute (np.array). If no arguments passed, use self.tickers and self.weights. If one argument is passed, assume it is an alternative weight array so use self.tickers and the argument. """ if weights is None: weights = self.weights return collections.OrderedDict(zip(self.tickers, weights))
[docs] def set_weights(self, input_weights): """ Utility function to set weights attribute (np.array) from user input :param input_weights: {ticker: weight} dict :type input_weights: dict """ self.weights = np.array([input_weights[ticker] for ticker in self.tickers])
[docs] def clean_weights(self, cutoff=1e-4, rounding=5): """ Helper method to clean the raw weights, setting any weights whose absolute values are below the cutoff to zero, and rounding the rest. :param cutoff: the lower bound, defaults to 1e-4 :type cutoff: float, optional :param rounding: number of decimal places to round the weights, defaults to 5. Set to None if rounding is not desired. :type rounding: int, optional :return: asset weights :rtype: OrderedDict """ if self.weights is None: raise AttributeError("Weights not yet computed") clean_weights = self.weights.copy() clean_weights[np.abs(clean_weights) < cutoff] = 0 if rounding is not None: if not isinstance(rounding, int) or rounding < 1: raise ValueError("rounding must be a positive integer") clean_weights = np.round(clean_weights, rounding) return self._make_output_weights(clean_weights)
[docs] def save_weights_to_file(self, filename="weights.csv"): """ Utility method to save weights to a text file. :param filename: name of file. Should be csv, json, or txt. :type filename: str """ clean_weights = self.clean_weights() ext = filename.split(".")[1] if ext == "csv": pd.Series(clean_weights).to_csv(filename, header=False) elif ext == "json": with open(filename, "w") as fp: json.dump(clean_weights, fp) elif ext == "txt": with open(filename, "w") as f: f.write(str(dict(clean_weights))) else: raise NotImplementedError("Only supports .txt .json .csv")
[docs]class BaseConvexOptimizer(BaseOptimizer): """ The BaseConvexOptimizer contains many private variables for use by ``cvxpy``. For example, the immutable optimization variable for weights is stored as self._w. Interacting directly with these variables directly is discouraged. Instance variables: - ``n_assets`` - int - ``tickers`` - str list - ``weights`` - np.ndarray - ``_opt`` - cp.Problem - ``_solver`` - str - ``_solver_options`` - {str: str} dict Public methods: - ``add_objective()`` adds a (convex) objective to the optimization problem - ``add_constraint()`` adds a constraint to the optimization problem - ``convex_objective()`` solves for a generic convex objective with linear constraints - ``nonconvex_objective()`` solves for a generic nonconvex objective using the scipy backend. This is prone to getting stuck in local minima and is generally *not* recommended. - ``set_weights()`` creates self.weights (np.ndarray) from a weights dict - ``clean_weights()`` rounds the weights and clips near-zeros. - ``save_weights_to_file()`` saves the weights to csv, json, or txt. """
[docs] def __init__( self, n_assets, tickers=None, weight_bounds=(0, 1), solver=None, verbose=False, solver_options=None, ): """ :param weight_bounds: minimum and maximum weight of each asset OR single min/max pair if all identical, defaults to (0, 1). Must be changed to (-1, 1) for portfolios with shorting. :type weight_bounds: tuple OR tuple list, optional :param solver: name of solver. list available solvers with: ``cvxpy.installed_solvers()`` :type solver: str, optional. :param verbose: whether performance and debugging info should be printed, defaults to False :type verbose: bool, optional :param solver_options: parameters for the given solver :type solver_options: dict, optional """ super().__init__(n_assets, tickers) # Optimization variables self._w = cp.Variable(n_assets) self._objective = None self._additional_objectives = [] self._constraints = [] self._lower_bounds = None self._upper_bounds = None self._opt = None self._solver = solver self._verbose = verbose self._solver_options = solver_options if solver_options else {} self._map_bounds_to_constraints(weight_bounds)
[docs] def deepcopy(self): """ Returns a custom deep copy of the optimizer. This is necessary because ``cvxpy`` expressions do not support deepcopy, but the mutable arguments need to be copied to avoid unintended side effects. Instead, we create a shallow copy of the optimizer and then manually copy the mutable arguments. """ self_copy = copy.copy(self) self_copy._additional_objectives = [ copy.copy(obj) for obj in self_copy._additional_objectives ] self_copy._constraints = [copy.copy(con) for con in self_copy._constraints] return self_copy
[docs] def _map_bounds_to_constraints(self, test_bounds): """ Convert input bounds into a form acceptable by cvxpy and add to the constraints list. :param test_bounds: minimum and maximum weight of each asset OR single min/max pair if all identical OR pair of arrays corresponding to lower/upper bounds. defaults to (0, 1). :type test_bounds: tuple OR list/tuple of tuples OR pair of np arrays :raises TypeError: if ``test_bounds`` is not of the right type :return: bounds suitable for cvxpy :rtype: tuple pair of np.ndarray """ # If it is a collection with the right length, assume they are all bounds. if len(test_bounds) == self.n_assets and not isinstance( test_bounds[0], (float, int) ): bounds = np.array(test_bounds, dtype=float) self._lower_bounds = np.nan_to_num(bounds[:, 0], nan=-np.inf) self._upper_bounds = np.nan_to_num(bounds[:, 1], nan=np.inf) else: # Otherwise this must be a pair. if len(test_bounds) != 2 or not isinstance(test_bounds, (tuple, list)): raise TypeError( "test_bounds must be a pair (lower bound, upper bound) OR a collection of bounds for each asset" ) lower, upper = test_bounds # Replace None values with the appropriate +/- 1 if np.isscalar(lower) or lower is None: lower = -1 if lower is None else lower self._lower_bounds = np.array([lower] * self.n_assets) upper = 1 if upper is None else upper self._upper_bounds = np.array([upper] * self.n_assets) else: self._lower_bounds = np.nan_to_num(lower, nan=-1) self._upper_bounds = np.nan_to_num(upper, nan=1) self.add_constraint(lambda w: w >= self._lower_bounds) self.add_constraint(lambda w: w <= self._upper_bounds)
def is_parameter_defined(self, parameter_name: str) -> bool: is_defined = False objective_and_constraints = ( self._constraints + [self._objective] if self._objective is not None else self._constraints ) for expr in objective_and_constraints: params = [ arg for arg in _get_all_args(expr) if isinstance(arg, cp.Parameter) ] for param in params: if == parameter_name and not is_defined: is_defined = True elif == parameter_name and is_defined: raise exceptions.InstantiationError( "Parameter name defined multiple times" ) return is_defined def update_parameter_value(self, parameter_name: str, new_value: float) -> None: if not self.is_parameter_defined(parameter_name): raise exceptions.InstantiationError("Parameter has not been defined") was_updated = False objective_and_constraints = ( self._constraints + [self._objective] if self._objective is not None else self._constraints ) for expr in objective_and_constraints: params = [ arg for arg in _get_all_args(expr) if isinstance(arg, cp.Parameter) ] for param in params: if == parameter_name: param.value = new_value was_updated = True if not was_updated: raise exceptions.InstantiationError("Parameter was not updated")
[docs] def _solve_cvxpy_opt_problem(self): """ Helper method to solve the cvxpy problem and check output, once objectives and constraints have been defined :raises exceptions.OptimizationError: if problem is not solvable by cvxpy """ try: if self._opt is None: self._opt = cp.Problem(cp.Minimize(self._objective), self._constraints) self._initial_objective = self._initial_constraint_ids = { for const in self._constraints} else: if not == self._initial_objective: raise exceptions.InstantiationError( "The objective function was changed after the initial optimization. " "Please create a new instance instead." ) constr_ids = { for const in self._constraints} if not constr_ids == self._initial_constraint_ids: raise exceptions.InstantiationError( "The constraints were changed after the initial optimization. " "Please create a new instance instead." ) self._opt.solve( solver=self._solver, verbose=self._verbose, **self._solver_options ) except (TypeError, cp.DCPError) as e: raise exceptions.OptimizationError from e if self._opt.status not in {"optimal", "optimal_inaccurate"}: raise exceptions.OptimizationError( "Solver status: {}".format(self._opt.status) ) self.weights = self._w.value.round(16) + 0.0 # +0.0 removes signed zero return self._make_output_weights()
[docs] def add_objective(self, new_objective, **kwargs): """ Add a new term into the objective function. This term must be convex, and built from cvxpy atomic functions. Example:: def L1_norm(w, k=1): return k * cp.norm(w, 1) ef.add_objective(L1_norm, k=2) :param new_objective: the objective to be added :type new_objective: cp.Expression (i.e function of cp.Variable) """ if self._opt is not None: raise exceptions.InstantiationError( "Adding objectives to an already solved problem might have unintended consequences. " "A new instance should be created for the new set of objectives." ) self._additional_objectives.append(new_objective(self._w, **kwargs))
[docs] def add_constraint(self, new_constraint): """ Add a new constraint to the optimization problem. This constraint must satisfy DCP rules, i.e be either a linear equality constraint or convex inequality constraint. Examples:: ef.add_constraint(lambda x : x[0] == 0.02) ef.add_constraint(lambda x : x >= 0.01) ef.add_constraint(lambda x: x <= np.array([0.01, 0.08, ..., 0.5])) :param new_constraint: the constraint to be added :type new_constraint: callable (e.g lambda function) """ if not callable(new_constraint): raise TypeError( "New constraint must be provided as a callable (e.g lambda function)" ) if self._opt is not None: raise exceptions.InstantiationError( "Adding constraints to an already solved problem might have unintended consequences. " "A new instance should be created for the new set of constraints." ) self._constraints.append(new_constraint(self._w))
[docs] def add_sector_constraints(self, sector_mapper, sector_lower, sector_upper): """ Adds constraints on the sum of weights of different groups of assets. Most commonly, these will be sector constraints e.g portfolio's exposure to tech must be less than x%:: sector_mapper = { "GOOG": "tech", "FB": "tech",, "XOM": "Oil/Gas", "RRC": "Oil/Gas", "MA": "Financials", "JPM": "Financials", } sector_lower = {"tech": 0.1} # at least 10% to tech sector_upper = { "tech": 0.4, # less than 40% tech "Oil/Gas": 0.1 # less than 10% oil and gas } :param sector_mapper: dict that maps tickers to sectors :type sector_mapper: {str: str} dict :param sector_lower: lower bounds for each sector :type sector_lower: {str: float} dict :param sector_upper: upper bounds for each sector :type sector_upper: {str:float} dict """ if np.any(self._lower_bounds < 0): warnings.warn( "Sector constraints may not produce reasonable results if shorts are allowed." ) for sector in sector_upper: is_sector = [sector_mapper.get(t) == sector for t in self.tickers] self.add_constraint(lambda w: cp.sum(w[is_sector]) <= sector_upper[sector]) for sector in sector_lower: is_sector = [sector_mapper.get(t) == sector for t in self.tickers] self.add_constraint(lambda w: cp.sum(w[is_sector]) >= sector_lower[sector])
[docs] def convex_objective(self, custom_objective, weights_sum_to_one=True, **kwargs): """ Optimize a custom convex objective function. Constraints should be added with ``ef.add_constraint()``. Optimizer arguments must be passed as keyword-args. Example:: # Could define as a lambda function instead def logarithmic_barrier(w, cov_matrix, k=0.1): # 60 Years of Portfolio Optimization, Kolm et al (2014) return cp.quad_form(w, cov_matrix) - k * cp.sum(cp.log(w)) w = ef.convex_objective(logarithmic_barrier, cov_matrix=ef.cov_matrix) :param custom_objective: an objective function to be MINIMISED. This should be written using cvxpy atoms Should map (w, `**kwargs`) -> float. :type custom_objective: function with signature (cp.Variable, `**kwargs`) -> cp.Expression :param weights_sum_to_one: whether to add the default objective, defaults to True :type weights_sum_to_one: bool, optional :raises OptimizationError: if the objective is nonconvex or constraints nonlinear. :return: asset weights for the efficient risk portfolio :rtype: OrderedDict """ # custom_objective must have the right signature (w, **kwargs) self._objective = custom_objective(self._w, **kwargs) for obj in self._additional_objectives: self._objective += obj if weights_sum_to_one: self.add_constraint(lambda w: cp.sum(w) == 1) return self._solve_cvxpy_opt_problem()
[docs] def nonconvex_objective( self, custom_objective, objective_args=None, weights_sum_to_one=True, constraints=None, solver="SLSQP", initial_guess=None, ): """ Optimize some objective function using the scipy backend. This can support nonconvex objectives and nonlinear constraints, but may get stuck at local minima. Example:: # Market-neutral efficient risk constraints = [ {"type": "eq", "fun": lambda w: np.sum(w)}, # weights sum to zero { "type": "eq", "fun": lambda w: target_risk ** 2 -,, w)), }, # risk = target_risk ] ef.nonconvex_objective( lambda w, mu:, # min negative return (i.e maximise return) objective_args=(ef.expected_returns,), weights_sum_to_one=False, constraints=constraints, ) :param objective_function: an objective function to be MINIMISED. This function should map (weight, args) -> cost :type objective_function: function with signature (np.ndarray, args) -> float :param objective_args: arguments for the objective function (excluding weight) :type objective_args: tuple of np.ndarrays :param weights_sum_to_one: whether to add the default objective, defaults to True :type weights_sum_to_one: bool, optional :param constraints: list of constraints in the scipy format (i.e dicts) :type constraints: dict list :param solver: which SCIPY solver to use, e.g "SLSQP", "COBYLA", "BFGS". User beware: different optimizers require different inputs. :type solver: string :param initial_guess: the initial guess for the weights, shape (n,) or (n, 1) :type initial_guess: np.ndarray :return: asset weights that optimize the custom objective :rtype: OrderedDict """ # Sanitise inputs if not isinstance(objective_args, tuple): objective_args = (objective_args,) # Make scipy bounds bound_array = np.vstack((self._lower_bounds, self._upper_bounds)).T bounds = list(map(tuple, bound_array)) if initial_guess is None: initial_guess = np.array([1 / self.n_assets] * self.n_assets) # Construct constraints final_constraints = [] if weights_sum_to_one: final_constraints.append({"type": "eq", "fun": lambda w: np.sum(w) - 1}) if constraints is not None: final_constraints += constraints result = sco.minimize( custom_objective, x0=initial_guess, args=objective_args, method=solver, bounds=bounds, constraints=final_constraints, ) self.weights = result["x"] return self._make_output_weights()
def portfolio_performance( weights, expected_returns, cov_matrix, verbose=False, risk_free_rate=0.02 ): """ After optimising, calculate (and optionally print) the performance of the optimal portfolio. Currently calculates expected return, volatility, and the Sharpe ratio. :param expected_returns: expected returns for each asset. Can be None if optimising for volatility only (but not recommended). :type expected_returns: np.ndarray or pd.Series :param cov_matrix: covariance of returns for each asset :type cov_matrix: np.array or pd.DataFrame :param weights: weights or assets :type weights: list, np.array or dict, optional :param verbose: whether performance should be printed, defaults to False :type verbose: bool, optional :param risk_free_rate: risk-free rate of borrowing/lending, defaults to 0.02 :type risk_free_rate: float, optional :raises ValueError: if weights have not been calculated yet :return: expected return, volatility, Sharpe ratio. :rtype: (float, float, float) """ if isinstance(weights, dict): if isinstance(expected_returns, pd.Series): tickers = list(expected_returns.index) elif isinstance(cov_matrix, pd.DataFrame): tickers = list(cov_matrix.columns) else: tickers = list(range(len(expected_returns))) new_weights = np.zeros(len(tickers)) for i, k in enumerate(tickers): if k in weights: new_weights[i] = weights[k] if new_weights.sum() == 0: raise ValueError("Weights add to zero, or ticker names don't match") elif weights is not None: new_weights = np.asarray(weights) else: raise ValueError("Weights is None") sigma = np.sqrt(objective_functions.portfolio_variance(new_weights, cov_matrix)) if expected_returns is not None: mu = objective_functions.portfolio_return( new_weights, expected_returns, negative=False ) sharpe = objective_functions.sharpe_ratio( new_weights, expected_returns, cov_matrix, risk_free_rate=risk_free_rate, negative=False, ) if verbose: print("Expected annual return: {:.1f}%".format(100 * mu)) print("Annual volatility: {:.1f}%".format(100 * sigma)) print("Sharpe Ratio: {:.2f}".format(sharpe)) return mu, sigma, sharpe else: if verbose: print("Annual volatility: {:.1f}%".format(100 * sigma)) return None, sigma, None def _get_all_args(expression: cp.Expression) -> List[cp.Expression]: """ Helper function to recursively get all arguments from a cvxpy expression :param expression: input cvxpy expression :type expression: cp.Expression :return: a list of cvxpy arguments :rtype: List[cp.Expression] """ if expression.args == []: return [expression] else: return list(_flatten([_get_all_args(arg) for arg in expression.args])) def _flatten(l: Iterable) -> Iterable: # Helper method to flatten an iterable for el in l: if isinstance(el, Iterable) and not isinstance(el, (str, bytes)): yield from _flatten(el) else: yield el